Reformas constitucionales y competencia política en Bolivia

Mario Torrico

Abstract


This article explains the causes and effects of institutional change in political contexts where there is no guarantee of strict compliance with the rules. Analyzing the political reform of 2005 that made it possible for prefects or governors to be elected for the first time in Bolivia by popular vote, evidence was found that when there is a crisis of legitimacy, declining coalitions push for inclussive changes that reduce future electoral losses and cannot be reversed by the rising coalitions that come to power. These coalitions, nonetheless, attempt to limit the degree of inclusion of rules through lower-level policy changes that reduce political competition.            

El presente artículo explica  las  causas  y  efectos del cambio institucional en contextos políticos en los que no hay garantía sobre el cumplimiento estricto de  las reglas.  Analizando  la  reforma  política  de  2005  que  posibilitó  (por primera vez)  que   en   Bolivia   los   prefectos   o  gobernadores  puedan  ser elegidos por voto popular,  se  halla  evidencia  que  indica  que  cuando  hay crisis  de  legitimidad,  las  coaliciones  declinantes  impulsan  cambios inclu-yentes  que  reducen   sus   futuras   pérdidas  electorales  y  no  pueden  ser revertidos por las coaliciones ascendentes que llegan al poder. No obstante, éstas intentan limitar el grado de inclusión de las reglas a través de cambios normativos de menor nivel que disminuyen la competencia política.


Keywords


changes subnational electoral system; democratic continuity; electoral reforms; neoinstitutionalism; prefectural elections; subnational political competence; 2005 political reform; cambios en el sistema electoral subnacional; elecciones prefecturales



DOI: https://doi.org/10.5195/bsj.2016.156

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